BUILDING RESILIENCE THROUGH PLAY IN NATURE (part 3)

In this final post exploring the theme of facilitating the growth of children’s resilience, we will focus on the key areas of building confidence, participation and self- agency, helping children to develop a positive outlook and encouraging a feeling of responsibility and wish to participate.

Building Confidence, Talents, Interests and Self Agency

Many children experience a sense of freedom when playing outdoors.  They feel free to follow their own interests, to take the time they need to repeat and perfect skills or experiences and they often have the opportunity to encounter novel, positive challenges through outdoor play.  The opportunity to repeat and practice without the pressure of time constraints or intrusive adult agenda can give a child the means to develop new skills, talents and interests.  Children often play collaboratively when they are in outside spaces and through the support of friends a child may discover a new levelof confidence and motivation to try again.  Adults can support a sense of self-agency by standing back and facilitating this kind of collaborative play and individual exploration. It gives children the message that ‘we believe you can solve this by yourself, but we are here if you need support or advice’.

Developing a Positive Outlook, Positive Values, Hope

One of the most frequently occurring themes that appears in resilience study is the theme of ‘hope’.  If we consider the quote by Nietzsche, we can start to understand that having the ‘why’ to live for is the key to becoming resilient.

‘He who has a why to live for
can bear with almost any how’
Friedrich Nietzsche

Spending time in nature can calm and soothe the soul.  It can also inspire and invigorate.  Children who have the chance to be awe-inspired by natural beauty can be moved to discover the ‘why’ in their lives.  Caring for nature and other people can be the first step towards developing life-long positive values.

Encouraging Responsibility and Participation

Many children develop a ‘learned helplessness’ through not being trusted to have a go, make mistakes and learn from their mistakes. Mistakes are often considered as a form of failure.  Some parents and practitioners are also fearful of risk and children pick up the message that ‘you’re not able and competent’ from adult fear.  To help children become resilient we need to encourage them to dare to face challenges and to view mistakes as learning opportunities.

Risk benefit analysis in outdoor settings is the most enabling approach to risk assessment.  Children from an early age can be involved in this process, identifying why doing something or being somewhere is beneficial, what are the risks that we should watch out for, and how we can reduce the risk or impact of risk.  Children in Nature Nurture take great delight in conducting risk assessments for their peers and figuring out safe ways to do things.  That is an important responsibility that we can give to our children and through this trust they can thrive and grow.

Conclusion

None of us are resilient all the time, but everyone has the capacity to become more resilient.

Play in nature gives us the peace, time and stimulation to build our own resilience and to support the development of resilience in the children for whom we care.

More time for play in nature will help ensure that each of our children will become confident individuals with the bounce back they’ll need in life in the future.

For more information, please contact Terri Harrison.

BUILDING RESILIENCE THROUGH PLAY IN NATURE (PART 2)

Gathering Community Resources
Young children can learn so much from ‘experts’ and people who are there to help us in our local communities. As early years practitioners, one can’t be expected to know everything and to have confidence in all areas of learning and play. It can be enormously beneficial for children to experience that we are all on a learning journey and we all can benefit from help of others. Everyone can become more resilient through learning to ask for help when we need it and through looking for opportunities to learn from others. In your local community, you may have Forest School experts who can advise you on woodland spaces, craft activities, games and identification skills. They may also be able to lead sessions with your children for you. Local farmers are a great resource who may be willing to invite you and your children to see lambs, sheep shearing, or harvesting. If you have a local care farm, children may be able to help feed animals and get up close enough to touch them safely. In Nature Nurture we have also invited local outdoor crafts people to come and show us their skills. We’ve had the pleasure of welcoming greenwood workers, basket makers, artists, musicians and storytellers help us to make beautiful things outside and to be creative in our natural surroundings. If you are lucky enough to have an outdoor space you wish to develop and have the resources to invite landscapers or builders in to help you, involve the children too. Let them watch workmen and talk to them about what they are doing and maybe they can also help out imitate what they see in their own play.

Developing Self-Regulation
Resilient individuals are not overwhelmed by their emotional states and can manage their emotional responses. This is something infants begin learning in the first hours after they are born when they are soothed by their carer. We continue to learn this throughout our lives, but early childhood is vital in the development of self-regulation. Outdoor spaces in nature are ideal places to support the development of self-regulation. If you think about what happens when you go for a walk in a natural space when you are feeling tense. Most of us start to experience a calmness. Our breathing changes and we can develop a better perspective on our problem. This is also true of children, even when they are highly stressed or anxious. But of course, it’s not enough to send children outside to ‘sort themselves out’. A child needs the help and support of a caring and attuned individual to help achieve the calm they need to regulate their emotional state. As Dr Stuart Shanker points out in his book ‘Self Reg’ adults are very good at telling children to ‘calm down’, but when do we explain to children what that state of calm is and what it feels like? Being outside can give you opportunities to notice when children are in a calm state and point it out to them. Say to the child ‘you look calm, what does it feel like?’ This is the first step towards helping a child to manage to regulate their own emotional state. Once a child knows what ‘calm’ is, you can start to teach strategies like finding a quiet space to be alone and breathing deeply to help the child manage her big emotions. Tools such as ‘Emotion Works’ give us a curriculum through which we can help the child to name the emotions he experiences, think about what they feel like in the inside their body, understand what triggers those emotions as well as what helps them feel better. You can access these tools as well as practice example and helpful advice at www.emotionworks.org.uk.

We can model self-regulation by managing our own stress levels in front of the children. Being outside helps us as much as it helps the children to achieve a calm, alert state.

Show children how you can take three deep breaths when you are feeling tense and how you can have ownership of your own feelings by expressing them in constructive ways. We can also show children how we take responsibility for our own actions and feelings by admitting when we make a mistake and apologising when we become aware of hurting someone’s feelings or when we have misjudged a situation.

Developing Thinking Skills, Creativity and Imagination
Natural spaces for play outside are the most stimulating, challenging and calming spaces and are therefore ideal for developing thinking skills, creativity and imagination in early childhood. These are important skills for resilient individuals. Someone who has the concentration, perseverance and creativity to solve problems and to manage difficult situations is more resilient than someone who can become frustrated, agitated, confused or overwhelmed when faced with a challenge. I think the best places to develop thinking skills, creativity and imagination are outside places. As Margaret McMillan said: “The best classroom and the richest cupboard is roofed only by the sky”.

Bruce D. Perry, M.D., Ph.D. is an American psychiatrist and neuroscientist who is an expert on child trauma and neurodevelopment. He and his colleagues run the Child Trauma Academy that can be accessed at: http://childtrauma.org/

He writes about learning as ‘Experiences – repetitive, consistent, predictable and nurturing experiences – are required to express the underlying genetic potential of each child’ Bruce Perry (2000). Central to every child’s healthy development is the opportunity to act on her natural curiosity. We can support this development through fostering natural curiosity in outdoor settings. Play in nature provides all the stimulus a child needs to realise their potential. Play always brings pleasure, without pleasure it’s not play.

We can see from Perry’s learning cycle that curiosity and the pleasure of shared discovery drives the child’s learning, motivation and self-esteem. It is so easy to imagine this learning cycle outside, with attuned and responsive practitioners who can share in the child’s celebration of discovery and mastery through their play. Perry also warns that this cycle can be crushed by adults who express disapproval of a child’s curiosity or disgust about the child’s discovery. When a child doesn’t experience an adult as a secure base and is too fearful to explore and investigate the world around him, then his curiosity can also be killed. The presence of a caring and responsive adult is essential for the child’s exploration because she can provide a sense of safety from which the child can set out to discover new things. The attuned, respectful and interested adult also is a source of shared discovery. Shared discovery provides the greatest amount of pleasure in the learning cycle.

In part three the theme of building resilience through play in nature will be concluded. We will consider three more aspects of resilience: Building Confidence, Talents, Interests and Self Agency; Developing a Positive Outlook, Positive Values and Hope; and finally Encouraging Responsibility and Participation.

Building Resilience Through Play in Nature (Part 1)

This blog series is based on a recent talk delivered by Terri Harrison at the Nature Play 2017 ‘Natural Resilience’ conference in Edinburgh, Scotland. The series will be broken down into three sections.

Introduction

Nature Nurture has evolved over the years but the basic principles have been consistent.  Our vision is to give children who feel vulnerable the opportunity to develop resilience through free play in nature and through nurturing, warm and attuned relationships.  Our staff team is specially trained to provide the sensitive support a child needs when they come from a background of trauma, neglect or uncertainty.  We believe that everyone has the capacity for resilience and that being outside can be the best way for a child to discover this potential.

When we think about any theme such as resilience it is often best to consider our own experiences first.  Take a minute to reflect on whether you feel resilient?  What do you consider as resilient characteristics in yourself? It is often easier to identify our vulnerabilities rather than the factors that make up our resilience.  However, it is important to identify strengths before we consider the areas we need to develop.

What helped you to be resilient?  Was it the way you were brought up, the opportunities you have been given, a role model in your life?

Studies indicate that resilience makes a big difference in people’s lives. People who respond to hardships with resilience tend to be:

  • healthier and live longer
  • happier in their relationships
  • more successful in school and work
  • less likely to get depressed

 

Resilience and Play in Nature

Resilience is a vast topic and it can feel a bit overwhelming. When one starts out with the intention of supporting children to develop resilience it can be daunting knowing how and where to begin.  We were faced with this challenge when we began Nature Nurture and we also encountered the problem of finding a means to observe, track and evaluate the growth of resilience in our children.  We created our own model of resilience that helps us focus on the holistic aspects of resilience and the child’s agency in that process which we call ‘The Seven Building Blocks of Resilience’.  You can find details of this on our website. There are a number of studies and books we found helpful along the way and we have provided a reading list in the final part of this blog.

The following guidance is a taken from the online booklet ‘Building Resilience in Young Children’ by the Canadian organisation, Better Start.  This is an excellent starting point and it identifies the following areas of focus in building resilience:

  • Building caring relationships
  • Being a positive role model
  • Gathering community resources
  • Developing Self Control (what we prefer to refer to as self-regulation)
  • Developing thinking skills, (to which we would like to add creativity and imagination)
  • Building confidence
  • Developing a positive outlook
  • Encouraging responsibility and participation

 

 

 

Building Resilience in Young Children discusses the inner strengths and the outer supports one needs to consider when thinking about supporting resilience.  In this blog we will consider each of these aspects in depth.

 

 

 

 

Building Caring Relationships

Everything that we do whether inside or outside begins with relationship. For a child to thrive physically, cognitively, emotionally or socially she needs a foundation laid through loving relationships and secure attachment.   Being outside in natural environments supports this process because of the feeling of timelessness one experiences outside, the possibility of calm and opportunity for shared discovery.  Being outside with young children can give an adult a very immediate and real experience of being a ‘secure base’ where a child feels safe and from which she can go off and explore, knowing that the secure base will be there for her when she returns. Through our attuned observation of children outside we can practise the vital skill of keeping a child ‘in mind’.  We don’t have to be physically close, but can be there with them in our awareness, respect and interest.

Children of all ages consider the outside world to be a social space.  They interact with peers and adults in a freer and less intense manner outdoors.  This is because we are all able to have greater control over our social encounters outside by being able to choose the physical proximity we share with another and by having the freedom to move in and out of those intimate spaces as we choose.  It’s not like being in a tightly regulated and confined space like a classroom.

 

Being a Positive Role Model

At face value this aspect is about us as practitioners rather than the qualities we are trying to help a child develop.  However, this is not strictly so.  Children can learn about becoming positive role models for siblings or less confident peers.  This relates to Vygotsky’s theory of ‘zone of proximal development’ where a ‘more knowledgeable other’ scaffolds and supports the learning of another.

 

Most diagrams explaining ZPD stop short of explaining what happens beyond the structured support of someone’s learning.  In Nature Nurture we see scaffolding as part of a wider learning process, that begins with the initial motivation of the child to learn.  The support that is offered to the child can take many forms, from the hand over hand guidance given to a very nervous or unsure individual to the modelling of a skill by a confident and competent other.

 

Sometimes the support can be verbal, or visual or simply working together side-by-side.  The next step is to reduce the support until the learner is working independently.  It is important that the time and space is given to the learner to repeat, practising the skills or sequence of actions until she feels confident and has gained mastery.  Once mastery is achieved the individual can be offered the chance to support another person to learn the skill, thus overlearning the skill and gaining self-esteem from being in the position of ‘expert’.

As practitioners, we have a huge responsibility to provide the right example for children to imitate. As we are all aware young children ‘copy’ or imitate all kinds of behaviour that they see around them.  In Waldorf Education, we consider this to be an important aspect of early education.  How we speak, relate to others, or show respect and care for our environment and in our daily tasks, has an enormous impact on the developing child who observes us intently.  Children learn to be respectful of the natural world and to eventually become custodians of nature through the way we respond and interact with nature.  No amount of lecturing children about caring for the environment will have the same deep learning-outcome as the simple care we show in how we treat the flora and fauna in our surroundings.

Also by showing our own awe and wonder at the things we see, hear, touch and smell when we are in natural spaces, we demonstrate to our children how we can be respectful and joyful in natural surroundings. A resilient individual has a good relationship and sense of belonging in their environment. A sense of place and belonging stems from these roots of caring and interacting with the spaces we grow up in.

In part 2 of this blog we will be looking at the areas of gathering community resources, developing self control (what we prefer to refer to as self-regulation) and developing thinking skills (to which we would like to add creativity and imagination).

Maslow’s Hierarchy and Outdoors Play with Anxious Children Pt. 2

Anxious children don’t feel safe and tend to be in a state of ‘high alert’ or hyper vigilance most of the time.  This is not the state of mind that is conducive with learning.  Maslow’s hierarchy highlights ‘safety’ as the second level.  Before this is achieved, an individual can’t work towards meeting their higher needs.  Interestingly, Bruce Perry in his work on the neuroscience of trauma, describes a similar hierarchy in structure, functioning and development of the brain.  The brainstem is the most primitive part of the brain and the first to be fully developed.  It is the place where reflex, heartbeat, breathing, and the other basic and vital processes are controlled. It is also the region of the brain that takes control when an individual is under extreme stress and anxiety, overriding the higher cognitive functions of reasoned thought, language and reflection.

 

In ‘survival mode’ the brainstem responds to potential threat with fight, flight or freeze responses.  An anxious child who is perpetually on high alert will respond to what others would consider minor worries, with survival responses.  The outer behaviours of fight, flight or freeze are what are often termed ‘challenging behaviours’ and can be met with punitive reactions that will often push a child further into a state of terror.  Another common adult response is to try and engage a child in a reasoned exchange, reflecting on their behaviour and demanding answers, thoughts and reasoning that are beyond the capacity of the brain stem.  For a child to be able to access the higher order functions of the brain such as reflection of self and behaviour, empathy for another, reasoned thought and problem solving, the child needs to feel safe and secure.  Maslow says the safety needs of an individual include: protection from the elements, security, order, rules, limits, boundaries, stability, etc. If one’s basic safety needs are not met, one would be fearful, hesitant, and anxious and may engage in fight, flight or freeze responses to new situations, experiences or challenges.

So how can we help anxious children feel safe when they are playing outside?  Or at least how can we help children feel safe enough to take challenges and engage in ‘risky play’, not how can we keep children safe when they are playing outside. The difference is all about agency and building resilience; if children feel safe enough to face challenges, they can learn to keep themselves safe and cope with or overcome their fears.

1. Build relationships that foster trust. Children learn to trust when the adults who support them are ‘authentic’.  That means being who you say you are, being honest and ‘upfront’.  Children who have experienced difficult attachments are masters at spotting inauthentic practice.  Do what you said you will do or, if that’s not possible, make sure you explain why you can’t as soon and as clearly as possible.  Don’t make promises that you are not certain you can fulfil. Be true to your own values and tell children why you make the choices and decisions that you do.  Playing outside is the best way to build relationships with peers too, you can help a child to be trustworthy and to develop trust in others through helping them to reflect in the moment, or later, on the way they respond to others.  Make sure you don’t try to do this when the child is feeling under stress though.  Help reduce stress by giving space, time and by soothing distress.

2. Giving consistency is the best way for a child to feel safe. When you are playing outdoors it’s great to have a sense of freedom but to enjoy that freedom children need to feel that some things are always there and can be relied upon. The first and most important consistent factor is the individual that the child has learnt to trust.  If you are lucky enough to have a team of adults with your group of children, ensure that the same people are available for the same children each session wherever possible.  If there are changes because of illness or other reasons beyond your control, make sure the child knows as soon as possible that ‘their person’ is not going to be there and why.  The other way of ensuring consistency is through routine and session structure.

3. Free play is the best vehicle for learning and development outdoors, but if a session is too loose and open-ended, anxious children will not cope and will start to push boundaries to find out where those boundaries are and to feel contained within those boundaries. So the reliability of a session structure can make a huge difference to the anxious child’s wellbeing and everyone’s enjoyment of the session. I think of the consistent structure of a session as a framework or scaffolding that supports the free play of the children who can then fill the spaces in between.  For example, an important part of our sessions is the consistency of the journey we go on each time.  The route we take through the site has been carefully worked out and leads us to four brilliant locations that offer huge potential for free play.  Each location offers something different but they stay the same each session.  How the children fill their time there is up to them. The adults’ role is to help facilitate their play in these special places.  The Nature Nurture journey gives a stable and secure foundation to the children’s learning and development.  They know what to expect and that they are free to take these opportunities and do what they like with them.

4. Linked to routine and structure is what we often refer to as ‘rhythm’. The planning that we do in Nature Nurture helps us to keep in balance the opportunities that we can open up for the children. For example, for children to feel well, secure and to help them develop self-regulation in their emotions and interactions, we need to ensure that they have a well-balanced ‘diet’ of activity and rest, engagement and time to process, the space to be with others or alone, time to concentrate in a focused way and time to daydream. Healthy children will naturally do this for themselves through their free play, but children who are anxious will need support through carefully selected locations to ensure they have the opportunities to find their own healthy rhythms.


5
. Last, but by no means least, is helping children feel safe by helping them to develop the skills to keep themselves safe. Anxious children are vulnerable children. Outdoor play is the best vehicle to help children develop confidence and to feel resilient enough to face fears and to face challenges. This is probably one of the most important gifts we can give children through access to outdoor play.  The first thing that our children are amazed about when they come to Nature Nurture is the way we respond to the ‘can we…?’ questions.  They expect the answer to be ‘no’… ‘no you can’t climb trees’, ‘no you can’t play in the stream’, ‘no you can’t light the fire’, ‘no you can’t use a sharp knife’.  They are completely taken aback when we say ‘yes….. what do you need to keep yourself safe while you do that?’  Together we most often come to the conclusion that they need to learn some skills first to become ‘master’ of whatever it is they want to do. So we teach children to climb trees, to light fires, to use sharp tools and most importantly we teach them to risk assess and to learn their own limits.  We also help them see that perseverance and practice can help them improve these skills and gain mastery.  When we see a child is becoming confident we ask that child to help another to master the same challenges.

 

We’ve come full circle now, back to trust.  Trust in oneself is a
key part of feeling safe and secure, but is only possible when you have others you can trust and who trust you.

Maslow’s Hierarchy and Outdoors Play with Anxious Children Pt. 1

 

 

I was just reading an excellent essay submitted by one of our Forest School Leader Level 3 students that focuses on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and it made me reflect again on how we use this theory in our daily practice.  Maslow believed that human beings are motivated to achieve certain needs. When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fulfil the next one, and so on. His original five levelled pyramid (1943, 1954) was later expanded in the 1970’s to include eight levels of needs, and it is this model I find most helpful to our work in Nature Nurture and in Forest School. Maslow stated that the human being must satisfy the lower level basic needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs.  Once these needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called self-actualization. Whereas everyone has the potential to achieve self-
actualisation, progress is often disrupted by failure to meet lower level needs.

These next two posts are about ensuring that those foundation layers of physiological and safety needs are in place before any expectations are placed on children to achieve the higher levels.  Our first post is all about ensuring the children’s physiological needs are met.

Physiological needs: Such as food, warmth, shelter, water, and other body needs. An individual cannot be expected to learn, or

be motivated to explore and investigate the environment when he/she is hungry, thirsty, cold or wet.  If an individual’s basic biological needs are not met, then they cannot trust the environment and may remain at a high level of anxiety and stress.  Here are five simple ways we can ensure everyone feels physically comfortable no matter what the weather:

1. Can you provide warm, waterproof clothing for the children rather than depending on them bringing suitable clothing with them? Fleecy lined waterproofs are essential in the colder months, and ensure you have a box of spare clothes for layering underneath and for changing into if children get wet or cold. We have a great supply of spare clothes donated by friends of
Nature Nurture.

2.Wellington boots are great for playing outdoors in but hopeless at keeping toes warm in the cold.  If you have money to spare,
buy the more expensive thermal snowboots for all your children.  If your funds don’t stretch that far, consider buying fleecy socks such a thermal ‘heat holders’.  Remember to give the children a size larger boot when they are wearing these socks though!  These socks are great for grown-ups too
.

3.  Ensure that there are snacks available in the session. Apart from a snack together including a warm drink and something nutritious and tasty to eat, make sure children are not hungry when they arrive. If they are coming from school, do you know whether they have had breakfast that morning, or whether they have had time to have lunch?  We provide cereal bars and fruit juice/ milk as well as a bowl of fruit for children when they arrive.  Our snack together around the fire towards the end of the session includes hot chocolate, fruit bread and fresh fruit.  During our whole day sessions, we have snack around midmorning and cook a hot lunch together on the campfire.  Be careful though, food can be a major source of anxiety.  It is better to give children something they like to eat, even if it’s not particularly nutritious, rather than letting them go hungry because of ‘fussiness’ about particular foods.  We have found by taking all the pressure off the children’s eating habits, they gradually relax and are more open to trying something new.

4. Hats and gloves can be a source of tension too. Our nurturing instincts as adults make us want to ensure the children are as warm and cosy as possible, but if children sense a point of conflict arising out of something they are not entirely comfortable with, you may lose the beginnings of trust in the first sessions. We hand children waterproofs, wellies, hats and gloves as a matter of course in the first session and tell them that these things are ‘theirs’ during Nature Nurture.  They have a coat hanger with their name on and all their home/school stuff is hung there while they are in the session and their Nature Nurture clothes are hung up on them when the session is finished. That way there is not a big discussion about ‘where’s your hat?’  If hats and gloves are not worn when we set off on the session, they must be in the children’s pockets in case they need them later.  I always take an extra supply of both in case gloves get wet and hats get lost. Again, once the tension of ‘you must wear a hat’ is taken away, the children usually choose to wear a hat and gloves, especially if they are a cool design.  Check if children have sensory difficulties with wearing tight or ‘itchy’ hats or gloves and help them find an alternative that doesn’t cause them discomfort or distress.

5.Some children have a real issue with keeping clean whereas others can’t have a good time without getting caked in mud and soaking wet.  Very often either extreme can be an indication of a sensory problem or a major anxiety and should be approached with care and understanding.  Firstly, the child who is anxious about getting dirty. This may be as simple as being worried that they will be in trouble at home or school if their clothes get marked or muddy.  There is nothing worse than trying to wash mud out of school uniforms or any other clothes for that matter, so always ensure the children have top to bottom waterproof covering.  For our pre-schoolers we have all in one snow suits or unlined waterproof playsuits for the warmer months.  Our older children have waterproof jackets and trousers.  We like the dungaree type that cover the waist and strap up at the shoulders.  With these our children can play freely without fear of getting wet or muddy on the inside.Gentle reassurance for those who are still anxious is usually enough, but don’t ever let the child feel coerced into participating in muddy play by adults or peers.

Then there are the children who cannot cope with the tactile experience of having dirty hands.  These children may have sensory processing difficulties that result in them being hypersensitive to tactile experiences.  If this is getting in the way of them exploring and investigating the environment, offer them gloves and have a supply so they can be changed frequently.  We like the ‘Magic Glove’ type because they are thin and stretchy and allow finer motor coordination in a way that thick gloves don’t.  Also make equipment like tweezers and trowels available so hands on experiences don’t’ have to be quite so hands on, and always have some hand wipes available for instant clean ups. Again take the sting of pressure out of the situation and meet the child with compassion and understanding.

Stress is alleviated when the child feels they have some level of control in a situation. Once this has been achieved the child can begin to trust and relax. Then there are the children who just crave mud and water, and will happily get covered from head to foot.  Best policy is to let them get it out of their system and provide immediate changes of clothes so they don’t get cold.  We find that the trips back to base to get changed are enough to help a child see it is best not to go completely over the top.  Self-regulation is always best!  We like to give the message in all that we do that mud and dirt are an important part of Nature Nurture and that messy play is brilliant and fun.

Finally; don’t forget the adults!  I have learnt that encouraging parents and carers to join us means that I really need to plan for their physiological wellbeing as well as their children’s.  Have a supply of warm waterproof clothing and footwear available to help them have a positive experience of outdoor play too!